Overview of current scientific studies and publications

Scientific studies on Long COVID are being conducted worldwide. Accordingly, the number of publications on this topic is very high. The studies and their results vary in relevance, significance and quality. It can therefore be difficult to find relevant publications. For this reason, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and internationally renowned researchers provide us with their literature recommendations in this section.

The list includes mainly English-language scientific publications that have been published in international journals. However, a few selected German-language articles are also included. The list does not claim to be complete. The RKI and our international experts have selected the publications according to their respective standards. For a better overview, the publications have been grouped into categories, even if some of them also deal with other topics.

In addition, the RKI provides a selection of current publications on epidemiology and public health every month.

New studies 2023


The burden of persistent symptoms after COVID-19 (long COVID): a meta-analysis of controlled studies in children and adults.  
Azzam A, Khaled H, Refaey N, et al.  
Virol J. 2024 Jan 11;21(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s12985-024-02284-3.  

Post-COVID health policy responses to healthcare workforce capacities: A comparative analysis of health system resilience in six European countries.  
Burau V, Mejsner SB, Falkenbach M, et al.  
Health Policy. 2024 Jan;139:104962. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2023.104962. Epub 2023 Dec 13.  

The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent long COVID symptoms: staggered cohort study of data from the UK, Spain, and Estonia.  
Català M, Mercadé-Besora N, Kolde R, et al.  
Lancet Respir Med. 2024 Jan 11:S2213-2600(23)00414-9. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00414-9. Online ahead of print. 

Serological markers and long COVID-A rapid systematic review. 
Collins E, Philippe E, Gravel CA, et al. 
Eur J Clin Invest. 2023 Dec 11:e14149. doi: 10.1111/eci.14149. Online ahead of print. 

Epidemiology of 7375 children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Germany, reported via a prospective, nationwide surveillance study in 2020-2022. 
Doenhardt M, Hufnagel M, Diffloth N, et al. 
Sci Rep. 2024 Jan 2;14(1):47. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-49210-1. 

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in post-COVID-19 syndrome: a major health-care burden. 
Fedorowski A, Fanciulli A, Raj SR, et al. 
Nat Rev Cardiol. 2024 Jan 2. doi: 10.1038/s41569-023-00962-3. Online ahead of print. 

Persistence of post-COVID symptoms in the general population two years after SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 
Fernandez-de-Las-Peñas C, Notarte KI, Macasaet R, et al. 
J Infect. 2024 Feb;88(2):77-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2023.12.004. Epub 2023 Dec 13. 

Long COVID or Post-COVID-19 Condition: Past, Present and Future Research Directions. 
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Raveendran AV, Giordano R, et al. 
Microorganisms. 2023 Dec 11;11(12):2959. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms11122959. 

Is antiviral treatment at the acute phase of COVID-19 effective for decreasing the risk of long-COVID? A systematic review. 
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Torres-Macho J, Catahay JA, et al.  
Infection. 2024 Feb;52(1):43-58. doi: 10.1007/s15010-023-02154-0. Epub 2023 Dec 19. 

Applicability of heart rate variability for cardiac autonomic assessment in long-term COVID patients: A systematic review. 
Ferreira ÁA, Abreu RM, Teixeira RS, et al. 
J Electrocardiol. 2024 Jan-Feb;82:89-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2023.12.002. Epub 2023 Dec 12. 

Incidence and burden of long COVID in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 
Frallonardo L, Segala FV, Chhaganlal KD, et al. 
Sci Rep. 2023 Dec 6;13(1):21482. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-48258-3. 

Risk factors for long coronavirus disease 2019 (long COVID) among healthcare personnel, Brazil, 2020-2022. 
Marra AR, Sampaio VS, Ozahata MC, et al. 
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2023 Dec;44(12):1972-1978. doi: 10.1017/ice.2023.95. Epub 2023 Jun 5. 

Pediatric and adult patients with ME/CFS following COVID-19: A structured approach to diagnosis using the Munich Berlin Symptom Questionnaire (MBSQ). 
Peo LC, Wiehler K, Paulick J, et al. 
Eur J Pediatr. 2023 Dec 14. doi: 10.1007/s00431-023-05351-z. Online ahead of print. 

Correction: Prevalence of mental health problems among children with long COVID: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 
PLOS ONE Staff. 
PLoS One. 2023 Dec 14;18(12):e0296160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0296160. eCollection 2023. 

Vaccine Effectiveness Against Long COVID in Children. 
Razzaghi H, Forrest CB, Hirabayashi K, et al. 
Pediatrics. 2024 Jan 16. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-064446. Online ahead of print. 

Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on the Cardiopulmonary System in Adults and Children: Current Status and Questions to be Resolved by the National Institutes of Health Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery Initiative. 
Rischard F, Altman N, Szmuszkovicz J, et al. 
Chest. 2024 Jan 6:S0012-3692(24)00006-0. Doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2023.12.030. Online ahead of print. 

Return to work after Post-COVID: describing affected employees' perceptions of personal resources, organizational offerings and care pathways. 
Straßburger C, Hieber D, Karthan M, et al. 
Front Public Health. 2023 Nov 27;11:1282507. Doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1282507. eCollection 2023. 

Looking at the Data on Smoking and Post-COVID-19 Syndrome - A Literature Review. 
Trofor AC, Robu Popa D, Melinte OE, et al. 
J Pers Med. 2024 Jan 16;14(1):97. Doi: 10.3390/jpm14010097. 

Definition and measurement of post-COVID-19 conditions in real-world practice: a global systematic literature review. 
Yang J, Markus K, Andersen KM, et al. 
BMJ Open. 2024 Jan 17;14(1):e077886. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-077886. 

Long-term outcomes following hospital admission for COVID-19 versus seasonal influenza: a cohort study. 
Xie Y, Choi T, Al-Aly Z. 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2023 Dec 14:S1473-3099(23)00684-9. Doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00684-9. Online ahead of print. 

Preinfection Neutralizing Antibodies, Omicron BA.5 Breakthrough Infection, and Long COVID: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis. 
Yamamoto S, Matsuda K, Maeda K, et al. 
J Infect Dis. 2023 Dec 20 ;228(12) :1652-1661. Doi : 10.1093/infdis/jiad317. 

Long COVID is associated with severe cognitive slowing: a multicentre cross-sectional study. 
Zhao S, Martin EM, Reuken PA, et al. 
EClinicalMedicine. 2024 Jan 25;68:102434. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2024.102434. eCollection 2024 Feb. 

 

Incidence of long-term post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection related to pain and other symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.    
Hoshijima H, Mihara T, Seki H, et al. PLoS One. 2023 Nov 29;18(11):e0250909. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250909. eCollection 2023    

The effect of the urban exposome on COVID-19 health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.   
Houweling L, Maitland-Van der Zee AH, Holtjer JCS, et al. Environ Res. 2024 Jan 1;240(Pt 2):117351. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.117351. Epub 2023 Oct 17   

Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness against post-covid-19 condition among 589 722 individuals in Sweden: population based cohort study.  
Lundberg-Morris L, Leach S, Xu Y, et al. BMJ. 2023 Nov 22;383:e076990. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2023-076990.  

The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine in the prevention of post-COVID conditions: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the latest research.  
Marra AR, Kobayashi T, Callado GY, et al. Antimicrob Steward Healthc Epidemiol. 2023 Oct 13;3(1):e168. doi: 10.1017/ash.2023.447. eCollection 2023.  

Association Between Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Positivity and Long COVID.  
Pozzi C, Sarti R, Levi R, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Nov 30;77(11):1531-1533. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad434. 

Risk factors for long COVID in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  
Rayner DG, Wang E, Su C, et al. World J Pediatr. 2023 Oct 27. doi: 10.1007/s12519-023-00765-z. Online ahead of print.

Long-term health impacts of COVID-19 among 242,712 adults in England.           
Atchison CJ, Davies B, Cooper E, Lound A, Whitaker M, Hampshire A, Azor A, Donnelly CA, Chadeau-Hyam M, Cooke GS, Ward H, Elliott P. Nat Commun. 2023 Oct 24;14(1):6588. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41879-2.      

Core outcome measurement instruments for use in clinical and research settings for adults with post-COVID-19 condition: an international Delphi consensus study.    
Gorst SL, Seylanova N, Dodd SR, Harman NL, O'Hara M, Terwee CB, Williamson PR, Needham DM, Munblit D, Nicholson TR; PC-COS study group.Lancet Respir Med. 2023 Dec;11(12):1101-1114. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00370-3. Epub 2023 Nov 2.    

Determinants of the onset and prognosis of the post-COVID-19 condition: a 2-year prospective observational cohort study.   
Mateu L, Tebe C, Loste C, Santos JR, Lladós G, López C, España-Cueto S, Toledo R, Font M, Chamorro A, Muñoz-López F, Nevot M, Vallejo N, Teis A, Puig J, Fumaz CR, Muñoz-Moreno JA, Prats A, Estany-Quera C, Coll-Fernández R, Herrero C, Casares P, Garcia A, Clotet B, Paredes R, Massanella M.Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2023 Sep 5;33:100724. doi: 10.1016/j.lanepe.2023.100724. eCollection 2023 Oct.  

What do we mean by long COVID? A scoping review of the cognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.  
Nicotra A, Masserini F, Calcaterra F, Di Vito C, Doneddu PE, Pomati S, Nobile-Orazio E, Riva A, Mavilio D, Pantoni L.Eur J Neurol. 2023 Dec;30(12):3968-3978. doi: 10.1111/ene.16027. Epub 2023 Aug 26.  

Clinical Characterization of the Persistent COVID-19 Symptoms: A Descriptive Observational Study in Primary Care.  
Rodríguez Onieva A, Vallejo Basurte C, Fernández Bersabé A, Camacho Cerro L, Valverde Bascón B, Muriel Sanjuan N, Soto Castro CA, García Morales V, Piedra Ruiz F, Hidalgo Requena A.J Prim Care Community Health. 2023 Jan-Dec;14:21501319231208283. doi: 10.1177/21501319231208283.  

Understanding, diagnosing, and treating Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome - State of the art: Report of the 2nd international meeting at the Charité Fatigue Center. 
Steiner S, Fehrer A, Hoheisel F, Schoening S, Aschenbrenner A, Babel N, Bellmann-Strobl J, Finke C, Fluge Ø, Froehlich L, Goebel A, Grande B, Haas JP, Hohberger B, Jason LA, Komaroff AL, Lacerda E, Liebl M, Maier A, Mella O, Nacul L, Paul F, Prusty BK, Puta C, Riemekasten G, Ries W, Rowe PC, Sawitzki B, Shoenfeld Y, Schultze JL, Seifert M, Sepúlveda N, Sotzny F, Stein E, Stingl M, Ufer F, Veauthier C, Westermeier F, Wirth K, Wolfarth B, Zalewski P, Behrends U, Scheibenbogen C. 

Allergic diseases as risk factors for Long-COVID symptoms: Systematic review of prospective cohort studies. 
Wolff D, Drewitz KP, Ulrich A, Siegels D, Deckert S, Sprenger AA, Kuper PR, Schmitt J, Munblit D, Apfelbacher C.Clin Exp Allergy. 2023 Nov;53(11):1162-1176. doi: 10.1111/cea.14391. Epub 2023 Nov 8.

Reviews

Disease/case definitions

A clinical case definition for post COVID-19 condition in children and adolescents by expert consensus.
World Health Organisation. 2023 Feb 16. Verfügbar unter: apps.who.int;
 
Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, et al. JAMA. 2023 Jun 13;329(22):1934-1946. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.8823.
 
A core outcome set for post-COVID-19 condition in adults for use in clinical practice and research: an international Delphi consensus study.
Munblit D, Nicholson T, Akrami A, et al. Lancet Respir Med. 2022 Jul;10(7):715-724. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00169-2. Epub 2022 Jun 14.
 
Post-COVID-19 condition in children: a COS is urgently needed.
Munblit D, Buonsenso D, Sigfrid L, et al. Lancet Respir Med. 2022 Jul;10(7):628-629. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00211-9. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Basic research, disease development

Brainstem volume changes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and long COVID patients.
Thapaliya K, Marshall-Gradisnik S, Barth M, et al. Front Neurosci. 2023 Mar 2;17:1125208. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2023.1125208. 
 
Deficient GABABergic and glutamatergic excitability in the motor cortex of patients with long-COVID and cognitive impairment.
Manganotti P, Michelutti M, Furlanis G, et al. Clin Neurophysiol. 2023 Jul;151:83-91. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2023.04.010. 
 
Cerebral hypoperfusion in post-COVID-19 cognitively impaired subjects revealed by arterial spin labeling MRI.
Ajčević M, Iscra K, Furlanis G, et al. Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 10;13(1):5808. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32275-3.
 
SARS-CoV-2 is associated with changes in brain structure in UK Biobank.
Douaud G, Lee S, Alfaro-Almagro F, et al. Nature. 2022 Apr;604(7907):697-707. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04569-5. 
 
Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis Post-COVID-19 Is Not Suggestive of Persistent Central Nervous System Infection.
Schweitzer F, Goereci Y, Franke C, et al. Ann Neurol. 2022 Jan;91(1):150-157. doi: 10.1002/ana.26262. 
 
Endothelial dysfunction and altered endothelial biomarkers in patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).
Haffke M, Freitag H, Rudolf G, et al. .J Transl Med. 2022 Mar 22;20(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s12967-022-03346-2.
 
Serum of Post-COVID-19 Syndrome Patients with or without ME/CFS Differentially Affects Endothelial Cell Function In Vitro.
Flaskamp L, Roubal C, Uddin S, et al. Cells. 2022 Aug 2;11(15):2376. doi: 10.3390/cells11152376.
 
Orthostatic Challenge Causes Distinctive Symptomatic, Hemodynamic and Cognitive Responses in Long COVID and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Vernon SD, Funk S, Bateman L, et al. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jun 23;9:917019. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.917019. 
 
Coronary microvascular health in symptomatic patients with prior COVID-19 infection: an updated analysis.
Ahmed AI, Al Rifai M, Alahdab F, et al. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2023 May 31:jead118. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jead118. 
 
Long-Term Adverse Effects of Mild COVID-19 Disease on Arterial Stiffness, and Systemic and Central Hemodynamics: A Pre-Post Study.
Podrug M, Koren P, Dražić Maras E, et al. .J Clin Med. 2023 Mar 8;12(6):2123. doi: 10.3390/jcm12062123.
 
The potential role of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in chronic, relapsing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Long COVID, and ME/CFS: evidence, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.
Kell DB, Pretorius E.Biochem J. 2022 Aug 31;479(16):1653-1708. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20220154
 
Proteomic profiling demonstrates inflammatory and endotheliopathy signatures associated with impaired cardiopulmonary exercise hemodynamic profile in Post Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) syndrome.
Singh I, Leitner BP, Wang Y, et al. Pulm Circ. 2023 Apr 1;13(2):e12220. doi: 10.1002/pul2.12220. 
 
Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is characterized by diminished peripheral CD8+β7 integrin+ T cells and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA response.
Santa Cruz A, Mendes-Frias A, Azarias-da-Silva M, et al. Nat Commun. 2023 Mar 30;14(1):1772. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-37368-1.
 
Pulmonary Dysfunction after Pediatric COVID-19.
Heiss R, Tan L, Schmidt S, et al. Radiology. 2023 Mar;306(3):e221250. doi: 10.1148/radiol.221250. 
 
Physical phenotype of blood cells is altered in COVID-19.
Kubánková M, Hohberger B, Hoffmanns J, et al. Biophys J. 2021 Jul 20;120(14):2838-2847. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2021.05.025. 
 
Post-COVID-19 Syndrome: Retinal Microcirculation as a Potential Marker for Chronic Fatigue.
Schlick S, Lucio M, Wallukat G, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 8;23(22):13683. doi: 10.3390/ijms232213683.
 
The immunology and immunopathology of COVID-19.
Merad M, Blish CA, Sallusto F, et al. Science. 2022 Mar 11;375(6585):1122-1127. doi: 10.1126/science.abm8108.

Symptoms

Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, et al.  JAMA. 2023 Jun 13;329(22):1934-1946. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.8823.
 
A prospective observational study of post-COVID-19 chronic fatigue syndrome following the first pandemic wave in Germany and biomarkers associated with symptom severity.
Kedor C, Freitag H, Meyer-Arndt L, et al. Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 30;13(1):5104. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-32507-6.
 
Trajectories of the evolution of post-COVID-19 condition, up to two years after symptoms onset.
Servier C, Porcher R, Pane I, et al. Int J Infect Dis. 2023 Aug;133:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2023.05.007. 
 
Long-term neurologic outcomes of COVID-19.
Xu E, Xie Y, Al-Aly Z.Nat Med. 2022 Nov;28(11):2406-2415. doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-02001-z. 
 
Impact of fatigue as the primary determinant of functional limitations among patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome: a cross-sectional observational study.
Walker S, Goodfellow H, Pookarnjanamorakot P, et al. BMJ Open. 2023 Jun 7;13(6):e069217. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-069217.
 
Chronic Fatigue and Postexertional Malaise in People Living With Long COVID: An Observational Study.
Twomey R, DeMars J, Franklin K, et al. Phys Ther. 2022 Apr 1;102(4):pzac005. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzac005.
 
Cognitive impairment in young adults with post COVID-19 syndrome.
Herrera E, Pérez-Sánchez MDC, San Miguel-Abella R, et al. Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 19;13(1):6378. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32939-0.
 
Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19.
Xie Y, Xu E, Bowe B, et al. Nat Med. 2022 Mar;28(3):583-590. doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-01689-3. 
 
Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in COVID-19 survivors among non-vaccinated population: A retrospective cohort study from the TriNetX US collaborative networks.
Wang W, Wang CY, Wang SI, et al. EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Nov;53:101619. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101619. 
 
Impaired health-related quality of life in long-COVID syndrome after mild to moderate COVID-19.
Malesevic S, Sievi NA, Baumgartner P, et al. Sci Rep. 2023 May 12;13(1):7717. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-34678-8.
 
Two-year follow-up of patients with post-COVID-19 condition in Sweden: a prospective cohort study.
Wahlgren C, Forsberg G, Divanoglou A, et al. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2023 May;28:100595. doi: 10.1016/j.lanepe.2023.100595. 

Diagnostics

Multi-disciplinary collaborative consensus guidance statement on the assessment and treatment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC).
Blitshteyn S, Whiteson JH, Abramoff B, et al. PM R. 2022 Oct;14(10):1270-1291. doi: 10.1002/pmrj.12894. 

Therapy

The relevance of pacing strategies in managing symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome.
Ghali A, Lacombe V, Ravaiau C, et al. J Transl Med. 2023 Jun 8;21(1):375. doi: 10.1186/s12967-023-04229-w.
 
Rehabilitative interventions in patients with persistent post COVID-19 symptoms-a review of recent advances and future perspectives.
Gloeckl R, Leitl D, Schneeberger T, et al. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2023 Jun 16. doi: 10.1007/s00406-023-01631-9. 
 
Fighting Post-COVID and ME/CFS - development of curative therapies.
Scheibenbogen C, Bellmann-Strobl JT, Heindrich C, et al. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023 Jun 15;10:1194754. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1194754. 
 
Outpatient treatment of COVID-19 and incidence of post-COVID-19 condition over 10 months (COVID-OUT): a multicentre, randomised, quadruple-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial.
Bramante CT, Buse JB, Liebovitz DM, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2023 Jun 8:S1473-3099(23)00299-2. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00299-2. 

ME/CFS

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is common in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC): Results from a post-COVID-19 multidisciplinary clinic.
Bonilla H, Quach TC, Tiwari A, et al. Front Neurol. 2023 Feb 24;14:1090747. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2023.1090747. 
 
Orthostatic Symptoms and Reductions in Cerebral Blood Flow in Long-Haul COVID-19 Patients: Similarities with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Campen CLMCV, Rowe PC, Visser FC. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Dec 24;58(1):28. doi: 10.3390/medicina58010028.
 
Orthostatic Intolerance in Long-Haul COVID after SARS-CoV-2: A Case-Control Comparison with Post-EBV and Insidious-Onset Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients.
van Campen CLMC, Visser FC. Healthcare (Basel). 2022 Oct 17;10(10):2058. doi: 10.3390/healthcare10102058.
 
ME/CFS and Long COVID share similar symptoms and biological abnormalities: road map to the literature.
Komaroff AL, Lipkin WI. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023 Jun 2;10:1187163. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1187163.

Public Health

Long COVID: long-term health outcomes and implications for policy and research.
Al-Aly Z, Agarwal A, Alwan N, et al. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2023 Jan;19(1):1-2. doi: 10.1038/s41581-022-00652-2.
 
Long COVID Through a Public Health Lens: An Umbrella Review.
Nittas V, Gao M, West EA, et al. Public Health Rev. 2022 Mar 15;43:1604501. doi: 10.3389/phrs.2022.1604501. 
 
Long COVID – eine Herausforderung für Public Health und Gesundheitsforschung. 
Nübel J, Sarganas G, Mikolajewska A, et al:. Epid Bull 2022; 44:3-9. doi: 10.25646/10753 
 
Healthcare use in 700 000 children and adolescents for six months after covid-19: before and after register based cohort study.
Magnusson K, Skyrud KD, Suren P, et al. BMJ. 2022 Jan 17;376:e066809. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066809.
 
Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on Workers in Health and Social Services in Germany.
Peters C, Dulon M, Westermann C, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jun 7;19(12):6983. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19126983.
 
Gesundheitsreport 2022 – Zwei Jahre Coronapandemie: Wie geht es Deutschlands Beschäftigten? Techniker Krankenkasse (TK). (2022). Teil 2. 2022 Jul. Verfügbar unter: www.tk.de;
 
Taking pandemic sequelae seriously: from the Russian influenza to COVID-19 long-haulers.
Honigsbaum M, Krishnan L. Lancet. 2020 Oct 31;396(10260):1389-1391. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32134-6. 
 
Über 60 Prozent der Patient:innen mit Post-COVID-19-Diagnose nur in einem Quartal in vertragsärztlicher Behandlung.
Monitor Versorgungsforschung. 2022 Apr 24.
 
Krankschreibungen aufgrund von Long-COVID: Wenige Betroffene, aber lange krankheitsbedingte Ausfallzeiten
Willenborg, P. idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft. 2022 Sep 14. Verfügbar unter: idw-online.de

Protection/risk factors

Risk Factors Associated With Post-COVID-19 Condition: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Tsampasian V, Elghazaly H, Chattopadhyay R, et al. JAMA Intern Med. 2023 Jun 1;183(6):566-580. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.0750.
 
Prevalence of long COVID decreases for increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake.
De Domenico M. PLOS Glob Public Health. 2023 Jun 21;3(6):e0001917. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgph.0001917. 
 
Prevalence and risk factors of long COVID 6-12 months after infection with the Omicron variant among nonhospitalized patients in Hong Kong.
Luo J, Zhang J, Tang HT, et al. J Med Virol. 2023 Jun;95(6):e28862. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28862.
 
Acute and post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a review of risk factors and social determinants.
Wang C, Ramasamy A, Verduzco-Gutierrez M, Brode WM, Melamed E. Virol J. 2023 Jun 16;20(1):124. doi: 10.1186/s12985-023-02061-8.
 
Persistent symptoms and risk factors predicting prolonged time to symptom-free after SARS‑CoV‑2 infection: an analysis of the baseline examination of the German COVIDOM/NAPKON-POP cohort.
Shi Y, Strobl R, Apfelbacher C, et al. Infection. 2023 May 25:1-16. doi: 10.1007/s15010-023-02043-6. Online ahead of print.
 
Risk factors for post-COVID-19 condition (Long Covid) in children: a prospective cohort study.
Morello R, Mariani F, Mastrantoni L, et al. EClinicalMedicine. 2023 May;59:101961. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2023.101961. 
 
Post-acute sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection by viral variant and vaccination status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.
Kahlert CR, Strahm C, Güsewell S, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 11:ciad143. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad143. Online ahead of print.
 
Effect of covid-19 vaccination on long covid: systematic review.
Byambasuren O, Stehlik P, Clark J, et al. BMJ Med. 2023 Feb 1;2(1):e000385. doi: 10.1136/bmjmed-2022-000385. 
 
Post COVID-19 condition after Wildtype, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection and prior vaccination: Pooled analysis of two population-based cohorts.
Ballouz T, Menges D, Kaufmann M, et al. PLoS One. 2023 Feb 22;18(2):e0281429. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0281429. 
 
Factors Associated With Long COVID Symptoms in an Online Cohort Study.
Durstenfeld MS, Peluso MJ, Peyser ND, et al. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 1;10(2):ofad047. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofad047. 
 
Post-covid medical complaints following infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron vs Delta variants.
Magnusson K, Kristoffersen DT, Dell'Isola A, et al. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 30;13(1):7363. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-35240-2.
 
Symptoms and risk factors for long COVID in non-hospitalized adults.
Subramanian A, Nirantharakumar K, Hughes S, et al. Nat Med. 2022 Aug;28(8):1706-1714. doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-01909-w. 
 
Impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the risk of developing long-COVID and on existing long-COVID symptoms: A systematic review.
Notarte KI, Catahay JA, Velasco JV, et al. EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Aug 27;53:101624. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101624.
 
Multiple early factors anticipate post-acute COVID-19 sequelae.
Su Y, Yuan D, Chen DG, et al. Cell. 2022 Mar 3;185(5):881-895.e20. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.014. 
 
Age, Sex and Previous Comorbidities as Risk Factors Not Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection for Long COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Notarte KI, de Oliveira MHS, Peligro PJ, et al. J Clin Med. 2022 Dec 9;11(24):7314. doi: 10.3390/jcm11247314.
 
Long-lasting Symptoms After an Acute COVID-19 Infection and Factors Associated With Their Resolution.
Robineau O, Zins M, Touvier M, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Nov 1;5(11):e2240985. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.40985.
 
Effect of COVID-19 Vaccines on Reducing the Risk of Long COVID in the Real World: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Gao P, Liu J, Liu M. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Sep 29;19(19):12422. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191912422.
 
Prevalence and risk factors of post-COVID-19 condition in adults and children at 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge: a prospective, cohort study in Moscow (StopCOVID).
Pazukhina E, Andreeva M, Spiridonova E, et al. BMC Med. 2022 Jul 6;20(1):244. doi: 10.1186/s12916-022-02448-4.
 
Long COVID burden and risk factors in 10 UK longitudinal studies and electronic health records.
Thompson EJ, Williams DM, Walker AJ, et al. Nat Commun. 2022 Jun 28;13(1):3528. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-30836-0.

Prevalence, incidence

How common is long COVID? Why studies give different answers.
Ledford H. Nature. 2022 Jun;606(7916):852-853. doi: 10.1038/d41586-022-01702-2.
 
One-Year Temporal Changes in Long COVID Prevalence and Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Huang Q, Jia M, Sun Y, et al. Value Health. 2023 Jun;26(6):934-942. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2022.11.011. 

Prevalence of long COVID complaints in persons with and without COVID-19.
Magnusson K, Turkiewicz A, Flottorp SA, et al. Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 13;13(1):6074. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32636-y.
 
Post-COVID-19 condition in the German working population: A cross-sectional study of 200,000 registered stem cell donors.
Bernas SN, Baldauf H, Real R, et al. J Intern Med. 2023 Mar;293(3):354-370. doi: 10.1111/joim.13587. 
 
Pooled Prevalence of Long COVID-19 Symptoms at 12 Months and Above Follow-Up Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Mudgal SK, Gaur R, Rulaniya S, et al. Cureus. 2023 Mar 18;15(3):e36325. doi: 10.7759/cureus.36325. 
 
Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK.
Office for National Statistics (ONS). 2023 Mar 30. Verfügbar unter: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/prevalenceofongoingsymptomsfollowingcoronaviruscovid19infectionintheuk/30march2023
 
The prevalence and long-term health effects of Long Covid among hospitalised and non-hospitalised populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
O'Mahoney LL, Routen A, Gillies C, et.al. EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Dec 1;55:101762. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101762. 
 
Prevalence and clinical presentation of long COVID in children: a systematic review.
Pellegrino R, Chiappini E, Licari A, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2022 Dec;181(12):3995-4009. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04600-x. Epub 2022 Sep 15.
 
Global Prevalence of Post-Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Condition or Long COVID: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.
Chen C, Haupert SR, Zimmermann L, et al. J Infect Dis. 2022 Nov 1;226(9):1593-1607. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiac136.
 
A population-based serological study of post-COVID syndrome prevalence and risk factors in children and adolescents.
Dumont R, Richard V, Lorthe E, et al. 2022 Nov 29;13(1):7086. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-34616-8.
 
Estimated Global Proportions of Individuals With Persistent Fatigue, Cognitive, and Respiratory Symptom Clusters Following Symptomatic COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021.
Global Burden of Disease Long COVID Collaborators; Wulf Hanson S, Abbafati C, Aerts JG et al. JAMA. 2022 Oct 25;328(16):1604-1615. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.18931.
 
Prevalence of post COVID-19 condition symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort study data, stratified by recruitment setting
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). 2022 Oct 31. Verfügbar unter: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/prevalence-post-covid-19-condition-symptoms-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
 
Post-COVID-19 conditions in children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19.
Kostev K, Smith L, Koyanagi A, et al. Pediatr Res. 2022 May 14:1-6. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02111-x. Online ahead of print. 

Epidemiology and public health 

Recovery and symptom trajectories up to two years after SARS-CoV-2 infection: population based, longitudinal cohort study.
Ballouz T, Menges D, Anagnostopoulos A, et al. BMJ. 2023 May 31;381:e074425. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-074425.
 
A Systematic Review of Persistent Clinical Features After SARS-CoV-2 in the Pediatric Population.
Jiang L, Li X, Nie J, et al. 2023 Jul 21:e2022060351. doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-060351. Online ahead of print.
 
Understanding How Post-COVID-19 Condition Affects Adults and Health Care Systems.
Katz GM, Bach K, Bobos P, et al. JAMA Health Forum. 2023 Jul 7;4(7):e231933. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2023.1933.
 
SARS-CoV-2 post-acute sequelae in previously hospitalised patients: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
Kelly et al. Eur Respir Rev. 2023 Jul 12;32(169):220254. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0254-2022. Print 2023 Sep 30.
 
Post-COVID Conditions.
Mueller MR, Ganesh R, Hurt RT, et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2023 Jul;98(7):1071-1078. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2023.04.007.
 
Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19: understanding and addressing the burden of multisystem manifestations.
Parotto M, Gyöngyösi M, Howe K, et al. Lancet Respir Med. 2023 Jul 17:S2213-2600(23)00239-4. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00239-4. Online ahead of print.
 
New-onset neurodegenerative diseases as long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Rahmati M, Yon DK, Lee SW, et al. J Med Virol. 2023 Jul;95(7):e28909. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28909.
 
Long COVID in Children: A Multidisciplinary Review.
Sansone F, Pellegrino GM, Caronni A, et al. Diagnostics (Basel). 2023 Jun 7;13(12):1990. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13121990.
 
Neuropsychological deficits in patients with persistent COVID-19 symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sobrino-Relaño S, Balboa-Bandeira Y, Peña J, et al. Sci Rep. 2023 Jun 26;13(1):10309. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-37420-6.
 
A scoping review of persistent symptoms after COVID infection at different follow-up periods.
Sreelakshmi PR, Tandale BV, Jadhav AV, et al. Indian J Public Health. 2023 Apr-Jun;67(2):292-300. doi: 10.4103/ijph.ijph_1178_22.

Postacute sequelae of COVID-19 at 2 years.
Bowe B, Xie Y, Al-Aly Z.Nat Med. 2023 Sep;29(9):2347-2357. doi: 10.1038/s41591-023-02521-2. Epub 2023 Aug 21. 

Incidence of long COVID-19 in people with previous SARS-Cov2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 120,970 patients.  
Di Gennaro F, Belati A, Tulone O, et al. Intern Emerg Med. 2023 Aug;18(5):1573-1581. doi: 10.1007/s11739-022-03164-w. Epub 2022 Nov 30. 

Long-term health consequences among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to individuals without infection: results of the population-based cohort study CoMoLo Follow-up.
Heidemann C, Sarganas G, Du Y, et al. BMC Public Health. 2023 Aug 21;23(1):1587. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-16524-8. 

Characterization of post-COVID syndromes by symptom cluster and time period up to 12 months post-infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 
Kuodi P, Gorelik Y, Gausi B, et al. Int J Infect Dis. 2023 Sep;134:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2023.05.003. Epub 2023 May 6. 

Long-term symptom severity and clinical biomarkers in post-COVID-19/chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a prospective observational cohort. 
Legler F, Meyer-Arndt L, Mödl L, et al. EClinicalMedicine. 2023 Aug 19;63:102146. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2023.102146. eCollection 2023 Sep. 

Symptom Profiles of Children and Young People 12 Months after SARS-CoV-2 Testing: A National Matched Cohort Study (The CLoCk Study). 
Pinto Pereira SM, Nugawela MD, McOwat K, et al. Children (Basel). 2023 Jul 14;10(7):1227. doi: 10.3390/children10071227.

S1 guidelines for the management of postviral conditions using the example of post-COVID-19.
Rabady S, Hoffmann K, Aigner M, et al. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2023 Jul;135(Suppl 4):525-598. doi: 10.1007/s00508-023-02242-z. Epub 2023 Aug 9. 

Epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of long COVID: an update. 
Su S, Zhao Y, Zeng N, et al. Mol Psychiatry. 2023 Jul 25. doi: 10.1038/s41380-023-02171-3. Online ahead of print.

15-month post-COVID syndrome in outpatients: Attributes, risk factors, outcomes, and vaccination status - longitudinal, observational, case-control study.    
Augustin M, Stecher M, Wüstenberg H, et al. Front Immunol. 2023 Sep 12;14:1226622. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1226622. eCollection 2023.    
    
True prevalence of long COVID in children: a narrative review.    
Esposito S, Deolmi M, Ramundo G, et al. 2023 Sep 14;14:1225952. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1225952. eCollection 2023.    
    
Impact of COVID-19 critical illness on functional status, fatigue symptoms, and health-related quality of life one-year after hospital discharge: a systematic review and meta-analysis.    
Gesser AF, Campos ML, Artismo RS, et al. 2023 Oct 11:1-12. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2023.2266365. Online ahead of print.    
    
Risk factors associated with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: an N3C and NIH RECOVER study.    
Hill EL, Mehta HB, Sharma S, et al. BMC Public Health. 2023 Oct 25;23(1):2103. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-16916-w.    
    
Post COVID sequelae among COVID-19 survivors: insights from the Indian National Clinical Registry for COVID-19.    
Kumar G, Bhalla A, Mukherjee A, et al. BMJ Glob Health. 2023 Oct;8(10):e012245. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2023-012245.    
    
Prevalence and risk factors for persistent symptoms after COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis     
Luo D, Mei B, Wang P, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2023 Oct 20:S1198-743X(23)00526-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2023.10.016. Online ahead of print.    
    
Prevalence and risk factors for long COVID and post-COVID-19 condition in Africa: a systematic review.    
Müller SA, Isaaka L, Mumm R, et al. Lancet Glob Health. 2023 Nov;11(11):e1713-e1724. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(23)00384-4.